4G Mobile Broadband - LTE Network Architecture and Protocol Stack

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The purpose?custom pdu in the LTE standard would be to make technical specs for any new radio-access technological know-how geared to bigger details prices, low latency and larger spectral performance. The spectral efficiency goal to the LTE system is 3 to four periods greater compared to the recent HSPA program. These intense spectral efficiency targets involve applying the technology envelope by using innovative air-interface strategies like low-PAPR orthogonal uplink several accessibility dependant on SC-FDMA(single-carrier frequency division multiple entry) MIMO multiple-input multiple-output multi-antenna systems, inter-cell interference mitigation procedures, very low latency channel construction and single-frequency community (SFN) broadcast. The researchers and engineers working on the normal come up with new innovative technological know-how proposals and ideas for program general performance improvement. On account of the remarkably aggressive common enhancement program, these scientists and engineers are typically not able to publish their proposals in conferences or journals, and many others. Within the criteria progress stage, the proposals undergo intensive scrutiny with several sources assessing and simulating the proposed systems from program general performance advancement and implementation complexity views. Consequently, only the highest-quality proposals and ideas finally make into your conventional.

Keywords: LTE Architecture, UDP, GDP, MIMO, MIME, MCCH, MBMS, QOS


The LTE community architecture is designed along with the target of supporting packet-switched site visitors with seamless mobility, top quality of services (QoS) and small latency. A packet-switched approach permits with the supporting of all companies which includes voice by way of packet connections. The result inside of a remarkably simplified flatter architecture with only two kinds of node particularly advanced Node-B (eNB) and mobility administration entity/gateway (MME/GW). This can be in distinction to a lot of extra network nodes within the recent hierarchical community architecture on the 3G technique. A person key change is that the radio community controller (RNC) is removed through the info route and its functions at the moment are integrated in eNB. Many of the benefits of a single node from the access network are lowered latency along with the distribution in the RNC processing load into several eNBs. The elimination from the RNC in the access network was doable partly for the reason that the LTE method won't support macro-diversity or soft-handoff.


The many community interfaces are depending on IP protocols. The eNBs are interconnected via an X2 interface and also to the MME/GW entity by way of an S1 interface as shown in Figure1. The S1 interface supports a many-to-many marriage amongst MME/GW and eNBs.

The useful split between eNB and MME/GW is revealed in Determine two Two rational gateway entities particularly the serving gateway (S-GW) along with the packet info network gateway (P-GW) is defined. The S-GW functions as being a community mobility anchor forwarding and acquiring packets to and with the eNB serving the UE. The P-GW interfaces with exterior packet details networks (PDNs) like the Online and also the IMS. The P-GW also performs many IP capabilities like deal with allocation, policy enforcement, packet filtering and routing.

The MME is often a signaling only entity and hence consumer IP packets do not go through MME. A bonus of the different network entity for signaling is that the network ability for signaling and traffic can increase independently. The leading functions of MME are idle-mode UE access capacity such as the manage and execution of paging retransmission, monitoring spot checklist administration, roaming, authentication, authorization, P-GW/S-GW assortment, bearer management which includes focused bearer establishment, protection negotiations and NAS signaling, etc.